Personal Information

Alma Mahler
Born 11-12-1964 New York
Gender ♀️ Female
Person ID 13578
Last Modified 2021-12-16 13:08:59

Parents ( 1 )

Emil Jakob Schindler
Mother Anna Sofie Moll-Schindler-Bergen
Family ID 25404
Last Modified 2022-01-20 18:30:31

Spouses ( 1 )

Gustav Mahler
Children ♀️ Anna Justine Mahler (Gucki)
♀️ Maria Anna Mahler (Putzi)


Birth Entering into life.

📍 New York

Additional Information

Additional Info

1909. Vienna. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

Relation to Gustav Mahler (1860-1911): His wife.

  • Half-sisters: 2:
  1. Margarethe (Grete) Julie Schindler (1880-1942). Her father is Julius Victor Berger (1850-1902).
  2. Maria Eberstaller-Moll (1899-1945). Her father is Carl Julius Rudolf Moll (1861-1945).
  • Houses Alma Mahler lived in.
  • Diaries: 1898-1902, 07-1902-1905, 1911 and 1913-1944 (in University of Pennsylvania, PA).
  • Buried: 08-02-1965 Grinzing cemetery (6-6-7), Vienna, Austria. Buried as "Alma Mahler-Werfel", also in this grave: Manon Gropius (1916-1935).
  • Died: 11-12-1964 New York City, USA. Aged 85.
  • Alma was deaf in one ear because of a childhood illness.

Photo's and audiofiles with kind permission of

Period 1879-1901: Youth

1881. Grandmother Schindler and Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Aged 3.

1883. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Margarethe (Grete) Julie Schindler (1881-1942).

1884. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Margarethe (Grete) Julie Schindler (1881-1942).

1885 ca. Margarethe (Grete) Julie Schindler (1881-1942) and Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1886 ca. Alma Mahler (1879-1964)Anna Sofie Moll-Schindler-Bergen (1857-1938) and Margarethe (Grete) Julie Schindler (1881-1942).

1888. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Aged 9.

1890. Plankenberg castleAlma Mahler (1879-1964) aged 11, Carl Julius Rudolf Moll (1861-1945)Margarethe (Grete) Julie Legler-Schindler (1881-1942) aged 9, Anna Sofie Moll-Schindler-Bergen (1857-1938) (dark dress) and Jakob Emil Schindler (1842-1892) (right).

1890. Plankenberg castleCarl Julius Rudolf Moll (1861-1945) (standing in the middle), Jakob Emil Schindler (1842-1892) (sitting in the middle) and Anna Sofie Moll-Schindler-Bergen (1857-1938) (dark dress, sitting right).

1891. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Margarethe (Grete) Julie Schindler (1881-1942).

1893. Alma Mahler (1879-1964)Anna Sofie Moll-Schindler-Bergen (1857-1938) and Margarethe (Grete) Julie Schindler (1881-1942).

1895. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Aged 16.

1896. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1897 ca. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Aged 19.

1897 ca. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Aged 19.

1897. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Aged 18.

1897. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Aged 18.

1897. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Aged 18.

1899. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1899. Venice, Lido. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) (left) with her family. Standing right: Gustav Klimt (1862-1918).

1900. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1900. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

  • 31-08-1879 Vienna: Alma Maria Schindler is born in Vienna, daughter of the landscape painter Jakob Emil Schindler (1842-1892) and his wife, German singer Anna Sofie Moll-Schindler-Bergen (1857-1938).
  • 16-08-1880 Vienna: Birth of Alma’s stepsister Margarethe (Grete) Julie Schindler (1881-1942).
  • 18-05-1883 Berlin: Walter Gropius (1883-1969) is born in Berlin.
  • 00-02-1884 Plankenberg castle: Jakob Emil Schindler acquires landed property in Plankenberg near Tulln in lower Austria.
  • 00-00-1885 Prague: Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) becomes musical director in Prague.
  • 00-00-1886 Leipzig: Until 00-00-1888 Gustav Mahler becomes second musical director at the Municipal theatre in Leipzig.
  • 03-03-1886 Pochlarn: Oskar Kokoschka (1886-1980) is born.
  • 00-00-1888 Budapest: Until 00-00-1891 Gustav Mahler director of the Royal Hungarian Opera in Budapest.
  • 00-00-1889 Jakob Emil Schindler obtains an assignment of the Austrian Crown Prince Rudolf to paint Adria-landscapes.
  • 00-00-1889 The Schindler-family and Carl Julius Rudolf Moll (1861-1945) travel south.
  • 20-11-1889 Budapest: World premiere of Gustav Mahler's 1st symphony in Budapest.
  • 10-09-1890 Prague: Franz Werfel is born in Prague.
  • 00-00-1891 Hamburg: Until 00-00-1897 Gustav Mahler is first musical director at the municipal theatre in Hamburg.
  • 00-00-1892 Beginning of Alma's intensive occupation with music.
  • 00-00-1892 Sylt Island: First vacation of the Schindler-family to Sylt, Northern Germany.
  • 09-08-1892 Sylt Island: Death of Alma’s father Jakob Emil Schindler on Sylt.
  • 00-00-1894 First short-term visit to a school.
  • 00-00-1895 Vienna: Max Burckhardt (1854-1912), director of the Vienna Burgtheater, furthers Alma's interest in classical as well as in contemporary literature.
  • 13-12-1895 Berlin: World premiere of Gustav Mahler's 2nd symphony in Berlin.
  • 00-00-1897 Second marriage of Alma’s mother Anna Schindler to painter Carl Moll, who had been Jakob Emil Schindler’s assistant.
  • 00-00-1897 Gustav Mahler converts to Catholicism.
  • 00-00-1897 Alexander von Zemlinsky (1871-1942) teaches Alma composition.
  • 00-00-1897 Alma gets acquainted to Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) through Zemlinsky.
  • 08-10-1897 Vienna: Gustav Mahler is appointed director of the Vienna Court Opera.
  • 00-00-1898 Alma Schindler in contact to the Viennese Secession movement.
  • 00-00-1898 Friendship with Gustav Klimt (1862-1918).
  • 00-00-1899 Vienna: Birth of Alma’s stepsister Maria Eberstaller-Moll (1899-1945).
  • 00-00-1899 Vienna: Removal to the Theresianumgasse, Vienna.
  • 00-00-1900 Relationship with Alexander Zemlinsky.
  • 22-01-1900 Vienna: Zemlinsky's opera "Es war einmal” (Once upon a Time) has its premiere at the Vienna Court Opera under the musical direction of Gustav Mahler.
  • 00-00-1901 Vienna: The Moll-family moves into their house on the "Hohe Warte". Hohe Warte district.
  • 07-11-1901 Vienna: First invitation to Gustav Mahler.
  • 25-11-1901 Munich: World premiere of Gustav Mahler's 4th symphony in Munich.
  • 27-11-1901 Mahler's first visit to the Moll house.
  • 21-12-1901 Vienna: Official marriage proposal to Alma Schindler.
  • 23-12-1901 Vienna: Engagement.
  • 00-00-1901 Vienna: World premiere of Gustav Mahler's "Klagendes Lied” in Vienna.

Period 1902-1911: Marriage to Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)

Year 1902Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

Year 1902 ca. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

Year 1903. Basel. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Gustav Mahler (1860-1911). The first known photographs of Gustav Mahler and Alma Mahler together, taken one year after their marriage at the time when Mahler conducted a performance of Symphony No. 2 in the Basel Cathedral.

Year 1903. Basel. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Gustav Mahler (1860-1911).

Year 1904 ca. House Gustav Mahler Maiernigg 1901-1907 (Villa Mahler, Maiernigg No. 31)Maria Anna Mahler (Putzi) (1902-1907) and Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

Year 1906. House Gustav Mahler Maiernigg 1901-1907 (Villa Mahler, Maiernigg No. 31)Alma Mahler (1879-1964)Maria Anna Mahler (Putzi) (1902-1907)Anna Justine Mahler (Gucki) (1904-1988) and Gustav Mahler (1860-1911).

Year 1906. House Gustav Mahler Maiernigg 1901-1907 (Villa Mahler, Maiernigg No. 31)Alma Mahler (1879-1964)Maria Anna Mahler (Putzi) (1902-1907)Anna Justine Mahler (Gucki) (1904-1988) and Gustav Mahler (1860-1911).

Year 1906House Gustav Mahler Maiernigg 1901-1907 (Villa Mahler, Maiernigg No. 31)Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

Year 1906Maria Anna Mahler (Putzi) (1902-1907)Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Anna Justine Mahler (Gucki) (1904-1988).

Year 1907Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

Year 1907Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

Year 1907Alma Mahler (1879-1964)

Year 1907. Rome. Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) and Alma Mahler (1879-1964) with friends.

Year 1907. Rome. Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) and Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

Year 1908Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Anna Justine Mahler (Gucki) (1904-1988).

Year 1909Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

Year 1909. Vienna. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Photo by Dora (Madame d'Ora) Kallmus (1881-1963).

Year 1909. Vienna. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Photo by Dora (Madame d'Ora) Kallmus (1881-1963).

Year 1909. Vienna. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Photo by Dora (Madame d'Ora) Kallmus (1881-1963).

Year 1909. Toblach. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Gustav Mahler (1860-1911). Near Trenkerhof.

Year 1909. Toblach. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Gustav Mahler (1860-1911). Near Trenkerhof.

Year 1910. Pragser Wildsee. Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)Alma Mahler (1879-1964)Maria Anna Mahler (Putzi) (1902-1907)Maria Eberstaller-Moll (1899-1945)Oskar Fried (1871-1941) and Anna Sofie Moll-Schindler-Bergen (1857-1938) (Alma's mother).

Year 1910. Rome. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) (right). Appian Way. April.

Year 1910. Rome. Alma Mahler (1879-1964)Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) and historian Friedrich Spiro. Appian Way. April.

Year 1910. Rome. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Gustav Mahler (1860-1911). Appian Way. April.

Year 1910. Rome. Alma Mahler (1879-1964), Friedrich Spiro and Gustav Mahler (1860-1911). Appian Way. April.

Year 1910 ca. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Dated earlier?

Year 1911. 08-04-1911. New York. Gustav Mahler on board a ship making his final crossing from New York to Europe. Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) and Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Right. Mahler died 18-05-1911.

  • 12-01-1902 Vienna: Viennese premiere of Mahler's 4th Symphony.
  • 09-03-1902 Vienna: Gustav Mahler and Alma Schindler marry in Vienna.
  • 00-00-1902 St Petersburg: Journey of three weeks to St Petersburg, where Mahler conducts concerts.
  • 12-06-1902 Krefeld: World premiere of the 3rd symphony in Krefeld. The Mahler couple is present at the concert.
  • 00-00-1902 Maiernigg: Summer sojourn in Maiernigg.
  • 03-11-1902 Vienna: Birth of daughter Maria Anna.
  • 21-02-1903 Premiere of Wagner's "Tristan and Isolde”. Alfred Roller designs the scenery, Gustav Mahler conducts.
  • 00-00-1903 Encounter with writer Gerhart Hauptmann (1868-1946).
  • 00-00-1904 Friendship with composer Hans Pfitzner (1869-1949).
  • 00-00-1904 Abbazia: Mahler family in Abbazia.
  • 15-06-1904 Vienna: Birth of daughter Anna Justine Mahler (Gucki) (1904-1988).
  • 18-10-1904 Cologne: World premiere of Mahler’s 5th symphony in Cologne under Mahler's musical direction.
  • 00-00-1905 Vienna: Through Alma’s kind offices, Pfitzner's "Rose vom Liebesgarten” has its world premiere at the Court Opera.
  • 00-03-1905 Abbazia: Stay in Abbazia.
  • 00-06-1905 Maiernigg: Alma Mahler with her children and mother Anna Moll in Maiernigg.
  • 00-00-1905 Vienna: Gustav Mahler's "Kindertotenlieder” have their world premiere in Vienna.
  • 27-05-1906 Essen: World premiere of Mahler's 6th symphony in Essen.
  • 12-07-1907 Maiernigg: Death of Alma’s daughter Maria Anna Mahler (Putzi) (1902-1907).
  • 14-07-1907 Maiernigg: Funeral.
  • 00-00-1907 Breakdown Alma Mahler.
  • 31-07-1907 Gustav Mahler falls ill, and an acute heart ailment is diagnosed.
  • 00-00-1907 Schluderbach: Stay of the Mahler couple in Schluderbach/Tirol.
  • 00-00-1907 Vienna: Crisis at the Vienna Court Opera.
  • 15-10-1907 Vienna: Mahler conducts for the last time at the Court Opera. He severs his contract. Felix von Weingartner becomes his successor in Vienna.
  • 00-00-1907 St Petersburg: Trip to St Petersburg. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) is present at the performance of the 5th symphony.
  • 00-00-1907 Helsinki: In Helsinki Mahler comes into contact with composer Jean Sibelius (1865-1957).
  • 00-00-1907 Recovery vacation Alma Mahler at the Semmering, Lower Austria.
  • 24-11-1907 Gustav Mahler conducts his 2nd symphony in the musical company.
  • 09-12-1907 Vienna: Alma and Gustav Mahler leave Vienna.
  • 01-01-1908 New York: Mahler conducts Wagner's "Tristan and Isolde” at the New York Metropolitan Opera.
  • 00-00-1908 Boston: Concert tour to Boston and Philadelphia.
  • 00-00-1908 Alma Mahler suffers an attack of weakness.
  • 00-04-1908 Return-trip to Europe.
  • 00-00-1908 Encounter with Dr. Joseph Fraenkel (1867-1920) from New York.
  • 00-00-1908 Toblach: Somme sojourn in Toblach. Maiernigg is sold.
  • 00-00-1908 St Gilgen: Last visit to Max Burckhardt (1854-1912) in St. Gilgen.
  • 19-09-1908 Prague: World premiere of Mahler's 7th symphony in Prague.
  • 00-00-1908 New York: The Mahler couple travel to New York once again with daughter Anna.
  • 00-00-1908 Re-encounter with Dr. Fraenkel. Meeting with singer Enrico Caruso (1873-1921) in New York.
  • 00-00-1908 Mahler starts on the 9th symphony, after he finishes the "Lied von der Erde”.
  • 00-00-1909 Quarrels at the "Metropolitan Opera” with conductor Arturo Toscanini (1867-1957).
  • 00-01-1909 New York: Beginning of the year: Mother Anna Moll in New York.
  • 00-02-1909 Alma Mahler suffers a miscarriage.
  • 00-00-1909 Amsterdam: Concerts of Mahler in Paris and Amsterdam. Auguste Rodin (1840-1917) portrays the composer in Paris.
  • 00-05-1909 Levico: Nervous breakdown Alma Mahler. Recovery in Levico.
  • 00-00-1909 New York: The Mahler couple take their third trip to America with their daughter Anna.
  • 00-00-1909 New York: Gustav Mahler becomes Chief composer at the Philharmonic Society of New York. Concerts in Brooklyn, Philadelphia and Buffalo.
  • 00-00-1909 More social contacts.
  • 00-00-1909 Initial work on the 10th symphony.
  • 00-00-1910 Alfeld: Walter Gropius builds the Fagus-Factory in Alfeld.
  • 00-04-1910 Return to Europe.
  • 00-00-1910 Paris, Leipzig and Cologne: Concerts.
  • 00-00-1910 Rome: Sojourn of the Mahler couple in Rome.
  • 28-05-1910 Tobelbad: Alma Mahler is taking the waters in Tobelbad. There she meets Walter Gropius (1883-1969).
  • 00-00-1910 Leiden: Meeting between Gustav Mahler and Sigmund Freud in Leiden.
  • 12-09-1910 Munich: World premiere of the 8th symphony in Munich.
  • 00-10-1910 Gustav Mahler sees to it that 5 Hymns by Alma Mahler are published.
  • 00-00-1910 New York: 4th journey to America.
  • 00-00-1910 New York: Opening for the concert season of the Philharmonic Society and tour to Pittsburg and Buffalo.
  • 00-00-1910 Breitenstein: The Mahler family buys a plot of land in Breitenstein am Semmering.
  • 00-00-1911 Friendship with composer Ferruccio Busoni.
  • 00-01-1911 New York: Disagreements of the Philharmonic Society with Mahler.
  • 21-02-1911 New York: Mahler conducts his last concert.
  • 08-04-1911 New York: Back to Europe.
  • 00-04-1911 Paris: Alma drives to Paris with the mortally ill Gustav Mahler.
  • 00-00-1911 Paris: Admittance into the hospital Andre Chantemesse (1851-1919).
  • 00-00-1911 Vienna: Mahler is sent to the Low sanatorium in Vienna by Prof. Franz Chvostek Jr. (1864-1944).
  • 18-05-1911 Vienna: Gustav Mahler dies. Burial at the Grinzing cemetery in the tomb of the daughter Maria Anna.

Period 1912-1914: Beween Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) and Walter Gropius (1883-1969)

1912. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Anna Justine Mahler (Gucki) (1904-1988).

1912. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Anna Justine Mahler (Gucki) (1904-1988).

1912. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) as "la Gioconda" by Oskar Kokoschka (1886-1980).

1912. Double portrait Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Oskar Kokoschka (1886-1980).

04-04-1912. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Willem Mengelberg (1871-1951) in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Period 1915-1920: Marriage to Walter Gropius (1883-1969)

1915. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1915. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1916. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Manon Gropius (1916-1935) (october 1916). (Or 1904. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Anna Justine Mahler (Gucki) (1904-1988)?)

1917. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1917. House Alma Mahler Breitenstein am Semmering 1913-1937 (Werfelweg 6, Villa Mahler)Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1918. Manon Gropius (1916-1935)Walter Gropius (1883-1969) and Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1919. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Franz Werfel (1890-1945). Summer.

1920. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1920. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1920. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1920. Venice. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). In front of the Campanile.

1920. AmsterdamGustav Mahler Festival Amsterdam 1920. Gertrude Foerstel (soprano), Mathilde Mengelberg-Wubbe (1875-1943)Alma Mahler (1879-1964)Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951), Mrs. Schoenberg. In front: Alexander Schmuller (1880-1933). More photos on Gustav Mahler Festival Amsterdam 1920.

1920. House Alma Mahler Breitenstein am Semmering 1913-1937 (Werfelweg 6, Villa Mahler)Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1920. House Alma Mahler Breitenstein am Semmering 1913-1937 (Werfelweg 6, Villa Mahler)Richard Eberstaller (1887-1945) and Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

  • 00-04-1915 Berlin: Alma Mahler with Walter Gropius in Berlin.
  • 00-00-1915 Gropius has to return to the front.
  • 00-00-1915 Vienna: Alma arranges a Schoenberg-concert in Vienna.
  • 18-08-1915 Wedding of Walter Gropius and Alma Mahler.
  • 00-00-1915 The prize of the Mahler Foundation is awarded to Julius Bittner.
  • 00-00-1915 Franz Werfel "Einander”, poems.
  • 22-04-1916 Berlin: World premiere of Werfel's Euripides-adaptation "Die Troerinnen” in Berlin.
  • 05-10-1916 Vienna: Birth of daughter Manon Gropius (1916-1935).
  • 00-00-1917 Acquaintance with writer Franz Blei.
  • 00-10-1917 Alma gets to know Franz Werfel.
  • 00-00-1918 Berlin: Walter Gropius is transferred to Berlin.
  • 00-01-1918 Beginning of a relationship with Franz Werfel.
  • 00-07-1918 Premature birth of son Martin Carl Johannes Werfel (1918-1919).
  • 00-00-1919 Weimar: Walter Gropius founds the Bauhaus in Weimar.
  • 00-03-1919 Weimar: Alma visits Walter Gropius in Weimar with daughter Manon.
  • 00-05-1919 Son Martin dies of progerea.
  • 00-09-1919 Daughter Anna Mahler gets engaged to Rupert Koller (1896-1976).
  • 00-00-1919 Franz Werfel "Die Mittagsgoettin”, magical play; "Der Gerichtstag”, poems.
  • 00-00-1920 Trip to Italy with Manon and Franz Werfel.
  • 00-05-1920 Gustav Mahler Festival Amsterdam 1920.
  • 00-00-1920 The papers for a divorce of the Gropius' are filed.
  • 02-11-1920 Daughter Anna Justine Mahler (Gucki) (1904-1988) marries Rupert Koller (1896-1976).
  • 00-00-1920 Franz Werfel "Nicht der Moerder, der Ermordete ist schuldig” (It’s not the murderer’s but the victim’s fault), novel.

Alma Mahler as composer

Alma played the piano from childhood and in her memoirs reports that she first attempted composing at age nine. She studied composition with Josef Labor beginning in 1895. She met Alexander von Zemlinsky in early 1900, began composition lessons with him that fall, and continued as his student until her engagement with Gustav Mahler (December 1901), after which she ceased composing. Up until that time, she had composed or sketched Lieder, and worked on instrumental pieces and a segment of an opera. She may have resumed composing after 1910, at least sporadically, but the chronology of her songs is difficult to establish because she did not date her manuscripts.

Only a total of 17 songs by her survive. Fourteen were published during her lifetime, in three publications dated 1910, 1915, and 1924; it is unclear whether she continued composing at all after her last publication. The first two volumes appeared under the name Alma Maria Schindler-Mahler, and the last volume was published as "Fünf Gesänge" by Alma Maria Mahler; the cover of the 1915 set was illustrated by Oskar Kokoschka (1886-1980). Three additional songs were discovered in manuscript posthumously; two of them were published in the year 2000, edited by Dr. Susan M. Filler, and one remains unpublished. Her personal papers, including music manuscripts, are held at the University of Pennsylvania, and at the Austrian National Library in Vienna, and at the Bavarian State Library in Munich.

Several days before the engagement, Alma and Gustav had survived a decisive turn in their relationship when Gustav, in response to a letter from Alma in which she had referred to her ‘work’ on her music, wrote her a long letter in which he straightforwardly clarified to Alma his expectation that, if they indeed married, it was his music that would now also be hers: “The role of ‘composer,’ the ‘worker’s’ role, falls to me–yours is that of the loving companion and understanding partner! Are you satisfied with it?” He knew he was asking a “great deal” and implored her to consider whether by giving up her own music for his she would then feel she “were having to forgo an indispensable highlight of [her] existence,” and closed with the admonishment: “be truthful!” Alma was at first stunned, feeling that she had lived for her music until then; nevertheless, upon reconsidering the letter the following morning, she decided that she loved Mahler and now must “live fully for him, in order that he be happy.”

Later on, in 1924, after Alma was together with Franz Werfel, she published an additional five songs, as Fünf Gesänge; one of these, “Der Erkennende,” was based on a poem by Werfel that Alma had read and set to music in 1915, two years before she met him. In an undated letter written by Werfel to Alma, at around the time of that publication, he offers words of encouragement, which seem to indicate that Alma was not at that point regularly composing but had perhaps mentioned or written to Werfel about the possibility that she would write new songs: “It would be splendid if, while revising, you might compose another song or two . . . or rework an older one, in order to fill out these three sections, but it is not necessary; even just as it is, it will be an excellent, objectively magnificent edition.”

These three publications, of 1910, 1915 and 1924, with a total of 14 songs, represent the entire oeuvre of songs published by Alma during her lifetime. In recent years, three additional songs by her have been discovered in manuscript. Two of these were published by the music scholar Susan M. Filler; a third remains unpublished.

In attempts to reconstruct Alma’s creative life as a composer, scholars have paid close attention to her utterances in her early diaries (Tagebuch-Suiten), on the basis of which it is possible to construct a chronology of 47 individual songs and three song cycles which she worked on, to one degree or another, between 1898 and 1901, and presumably the total number of compositions exceeded that. Whether or not Alma actually ceased to compose between 1902 and 1910 is a subject of scholarly speculation. What is certain, however, is that she put her considerable musical education and sensibility at the service of Gustav Mahler’s works in the course of their marriage. In describing their first summer vacation together, Alma recalled:

"I tried playing the piano very softly, but when I asked whether he had heard me he said he had, although his studio was far away in the wood. And so I changed my occupation; I copied all he had of the Fifth straight away, so that my manuscript was ready only a few days behind him. He got more and more into the way of not writing out the instrumental parts in the score–only the first bars; and I learnt at this time to read his score and to hear it as I wrote and was more and more of real help to him."

See details at: Compositions Alma Mahler.

Period 1921-1928: Beween Walter Gropius (1883-1969) and Franz Werfel (1890-1945)

1922. Venice. Family photo. Front: Anna Sofie Moll-Schindler-Bergen (1857-1938)Franz Werfel (1890-1945)Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Back: Carl Julius Rudolf Moll (1861-1945)Anna Justine Mahler (Gucki) (1904-1988).

1923. Venice. Alma Mahler (1879-1964)Franz Werfel (1890-1945) and Manon Gropius (1916-1935).

1923. Venice. Franz Werfel (1890-1945)Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Manon Gropius (1916-1935).

1925. Venice. Carl Julius Rudolf Moll (1861-1945)Franz Werfel (1890-1945)Alma Mahler (1879-1964)Anna Sofie Moll-Schindler-Bergen (1857-1938).

1925. Trahutten. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Franz Werfel (1890-1945).

  • 00-00-1921 Venice: Trip to Venice.
  • 00-00-1921 Visits of the composers Hans Pfitzner (1869-1949), Joseph Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), Alfredo Casellas, Francis Poulenc and Darius Milhaud.
  • 15-10-1921 World premiere of Franz Werfel's play "Der Spiegelmensch” (Mirrorman) in Leipzig. Further staging in Vienna books little success.
  • 00-00-1922 Venice: Purchase of a house in Venice, "Casa Mahler”.
  • 00-00-1922 Daughter Anna separates from Rupert Kollner. Later Anna marries the composer Ernst Krenek (1900-1991) and gets divorced again.
  • 00-00-1923 Venice: Temporarily stay in Venice and Semmering, together with Werfel.
  • 00-00-1924 Travels with Werfel to the Near Orient.
  • 00-00-1924 Vienna: From draughts left behind by Gustav Mahler, Ernst Krenek orchestrates two arrangements of the 10th symphony and performs them in Vienna.
  • 00-00-1924 Franz Werfel "Verdi, Roman der Oper”.
  • 00-00-1925 Nervi: Alma in Nervi, from time to time Werfel as well.
  • 00-00-1925 Close friendship with composer Alban Berg (1885-1935) and his wife Helene.
  • 26-05-1925 Vienna: World premiere of Werfel's play "Juarez and Maximilian” in Vienna.
  • 14-12-1925 Berlin: Successful world premiere of Alban Berg's opera "Wozzek” in Berlin. Alma and Werfel are present at the opening night. The opera is dedicated to Alma.
  • 00-12-1926 Prague: Czech premiere of "Wozzek” in Prague in the presence of Alma and Werfel.
  • 00-00-1928 Franz Werfel "Der Abituriententag”, novel.

Period 1929-1945: Marriage to Franz Werfel (1890-1945)

1930. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1930. Egypt. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Franz Werfel (1890-1945).

1931. Vienna, Hohe Warte, salon. Franz Werfel (1890-1945) and Alma Mahler (1879-1964). With Oskar Kokoschka (1886-1980)'s portrait of Alma (la Giaconda, 1912) on the wall.

1932. Berlin. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Otto Klemperer (1885-1973).

1933. City of Santa MargheritaAlma Mahler (1879-1964).

1933. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Franz Werfel (1890-1945).

1933. Vienna, Hohe Warte. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1933. Vienna. Hohe Warte. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Anna Justine Mahler (Gucki) (1904-1988).

1933. Manon Gropius (1916-1935)Johannes Hollnsteiner (1895-1971) and Alma Mahler.

1933. House Alma Mahler Breitenstein am Semmering 1913-1937 (Werfelweg 6, Villa Mahler). Agnes Ida Gebauer (1895-1977) ("Schulli", Alma's long term companion), Franz Werfel (1890-1945), unknown person and Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1934. Venice. Manon Gropius (1916-1935), Paul Zsolnay (1895-1961)Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Franz Werfel (1890-1945).

1935. New York. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1935. New York. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1935. New York. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Franz Werfel (1890-1945).

1935. New York. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Franz Werfel (1890-1945).

1937. Hamburg. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Franz Werfel (1890-1945).

1937. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Franz Werfel (1890-1945).

06-10-1937 Vienna: Max Reinhardt (1873-1943)Franz Werfel (1890-1945) and Alma Mahler (1879-1964) on the occasion of the world premiere of Werfel’s play "In einer Nacht" ("One Night") at Theater in der Josefstadt. This was Reinhardt’s last direction in Europe.

1938. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1938. 06-05-1938. Amsterdam. Opening of the exhibition 'Gedenck Clanck' in the Municipal Museum. Alma Mahler (1879-1964), Minister Slotemaker de Bruine and Willem Mengelberg (1871-1951).

1938. 06-05-1938. Amsterdam. 50th anniversary of the Amsterdam Royal Concertgebouw. After the gala concert of Symphony No. 8. Alma Mahler (1879-1964)Franz Werfel (1890-1945) and elderman E. Boekman. Queen Wilhelmina was also present.

1938. 06-05-1938. Amsterdam. 50th anniversary of the Amsterdam Royal Concertgebouw. In the garden of the house of the Andriesse family, Dijsselhofplantsoen No. 16 in Amsterdam.

1940. Alma Mahler (1879-1964), Baptism of Erika, daughter of Walter Slezak.

1940. 13-10-1940. New York, Hoboken. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Arrival. Disembarking from the "Nea Hellas".

1940. New York, Hoboken. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Arrival. Disembarking from the "Nea Hellas". Behind her (partly hidden) Nelly Mann, Heinrich Mann's wife.

1940. Lourdes. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Right, wearing a hat during a cable-car ride.

1941. Los Angeles. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). In the garden of ther house.

1943. Los Angeles. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). On a film set.

1944. Los Angeles. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Franz Werfel (1890-1945) on the film set of "Guest Wife" ("What every Woman wants") with movie director Sam Wood, Claudette Colbert and Don Ameche.

1945. Los Angeles. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) after the death of Franz Werfel (1890-1945).

1945. Los Angeles. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) after death of Franz Werfel (1890-1945).

1945. New York. Friedrich Torberg, Oscar Karlweis, Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Marietta Torberg.

  • 06-07-1929 Alma marries Franz Werfel. Honeymoon to the Near Orient.
  • 00-00-1929 Third marriage of daughter Anna to Werfel’s publisher Paul Zsolnay (1895-1961).
  • 00-00-1929 Franz Werfel "Barbara oder die Froemmigkeit”, novel.
  • 00-00-1931 Vienna: Removal into the new big house on the "Hohe Warte".
  • 00-00-1931 Daughter Anna separates from Zsolnay.
  • 00-00-1932 Budding inclination towards the Roman-Catholic Church.
  • 00-00-1932 Beginning of a close and intimate friendship with the professor of theology Johannes Hollnsteiner (1895-1971).
  • 00-00-1933 Franz Werfel "Die vierzig Tage des Musa Dagh” (The 40 Days of Musa Dagh), novel.
  • 00-04-1934 Venice: Daughter Manon Gropius (1916-1935) comes down with poliomyelitis in Venice.
  • 22-04-1935 Daughter Manon Gropius dies. Alban Berg dedicates to her his violin concert ("Dem Andenken eines Engels” - "To the Memory of an Angel”).
  • 00-10-1935 New York: Fall Werfel couple in New York to see a performance of Werfel's "Weg der Verheissung” (The eternal Road).
  • 00-00-1935 Venice: Sale of Casa Mahler, Alma’s house in Venice.
  • 00-04-1936 Locarno: Stay in Locarno. Memorial service for daughter Manon.
  • 00-00-1936 Vienna and Milan: The house on the "Hohe Warte" is given up. Apartment in Milan.
  • 00-00-1937 Paris: At the World exhibition in Paris, Anna Mahler is awarded for her sculptures with a first prize.
  • 00-00-1937 Franz Werfel "Hoeret die Stimme”, novel.
  • 00-00-1938 Milan: Alma and Franz Werfel in Milan. Continued journey to Naples and Capri.
  • 00-03-1938 Prague: Alma-Mahler-Werfel leaves Austria to go into exile. Travels to Prague, Zagreb, Triest and Milan, where her husband is staying.
  • 00-00-1938 Zurich, Paris, Amsterdam, London and Paris: Invitation to Zurich. Continued journey via Paris and Amsterdam to London to see her daughter Anna. Return to Paris.
  • 00-00-1938 Sanary-sur-mer: Purchase of a renovated watchtower in Sanary-sur-mer.
  • 00-00-1938 Franz Werfel has heart troubles again. Recuperation in the south of France.
  • 06-05-1938 Amsterdam: Opening of the exhibition 'Gedenck Clanck' in the Municipal Museum. Franz Werfel (1890-1945)Alma Mahler (1879-1964), Minister Slotemaker de Bruine and Willem Mengelberg (1871-1951).
  • 06-05-1938 Amsterdam: 50th anniversary of the Amsterdam Royal Concertgebouw. Gala concert of Symphony No. 8. Alma Mahler (1879-1964)Franz Werfel (1890-1945) and elderman E. Boekman. Queen Wilhelmina was also present. Alma stayed in the house of the Andriesse family, Dijsselhofplantsoen No. 16 in Amsterdam.
  • 29-11-1938 Vienna: Alma’s mother Anna Sofie Moll-Schindler-Bergen (1857-1938) dies.
  • 00-12-1938 Paris: Visits by Franz Lehar (1870-1948), Bruno Walter (1876-1962), Fritz von Unruh and Gustave Charpentier (1860-1956).
  • 00-00-1938 Boston: Walter Gropius is appointed professor at Harvard University.
  • 00-12-1939 Paris: Paris-sojourn.
  • 00-12-1939 Franz Werfel "Der veruntreute Himmel”, novel (initially ”Der gestohlene Himmel” - "The pinched Heaven”)
  • 00-00-1940 Bordeaux, Bayonne and Pau: Werfel couple reaches Bordeaux, Bayonne and Pau.
  • 01-07-1940 Lourdes: Visit to Lourdes
  • 03-08-1940 Marseille: Return to Marseille.
  • 12-09-1940 Spain and Portigal: Beginning of the journey to the USA via Spain and Portugal, accompanied by Heinrich and Golo Mann.
  • 00-00-1940 New York: Emigration to the USA.
  • 13-10-1940 New York: Arrival in New York.
  • 00-12-1940 Los Angeles: Alma and Franz Werfel move to Los Angeles.
  • 00-00-1940 Friendship with Kate Berl.
  • 00-00-1941 Los Angeles: Contacts with Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) and director Max Reinhardt (1873-1943.
  • 00-00-1941 Franz Werfel's novel "Das Lied der Bernadette” (The Song of Bernadette) comes into being (published in Stockholm).
  • 00-07-1941 Marseille: Franz Werfel's father dies in Marseille.
  • 00-09-1941 New York: Stay in New York.
  • 00-00-1942 Alma and Franz Werfel get acquainted with writer Erich Maria Remarque. Friendship Alma with Remarque.
  • 16-03-1942 New York/Larchmont: Alexander Zemlinsky dies.
  • 00-06-1942 New York: Visiting Werfel's relatives in New York.
  • 00-09-1942 Los Angeles/Beverly Hills: Removal to Beverly Hills.
  • 04-12-1942 Dresden: The mentally retarded sister Margarethe (Grete) Julie Schindler (1881-1942) is killed in Germany by the Nazi regime.
  • 00-00-1942 Franz Werfel makes friends with writer Friedrich Torberg.
  • 00-00-1943 Los Angeles/Santa Barbara: Purchase of a summer residence in Santa Barbara.
  • 00-00-1943 Franz Werfel suffers two heart attacks during a short period of time.
  • 00-11-1943 More heart attacks Werfel.
  • 23-12-1943 Premiere of the movie "The Song of Bernadette”.
  • 00-04-1944 Werfel's state of health improves. Work on "Stern der Ungeborenen” (Star of the Unborn).
  • 00-00-1945 Financial difficulties.
  • 00-00-1945 Alma suffers from general exhaustion and bouts of fever.
  • 00-00-1945 After the end of the war, Alma learned that her stepfather, Carl Moll, and her half-sister and her brother-in-law, Maria and Richard Eberstaller, who had all been supporters of Nazi ideology, had died by their own initiative, in a murder-suicide pact, as Russian troops were entering Vienna. (Alma’s mother, Anna Moll, had died in 1938, after Alma’s flight from Vienna.) Alma began to correspond with her nephew Willi Legler (her sister Margarethe (Grete) Julie Legler-Schindler (1881-1942)’s son) in Vienna, who attended to a variety of matters on her behalf, including the taking of inventory at her two houses, the ordering of repairs, and the mediation of legal matters. Her House Alma Mahler Vienna Hohe Warte 1931-1945 (Steinfeldgasse No. 2, Villa Eduard Ast) had been extensively damaged by allied bombing during the war. At this time, it came to light that property rightfully belonging to Alma had been appropriated in various ways by her family. Most significantly, her cherished Munch painting, Sommernacht am Strand (the gift from Walter Gropius upon the birth of Manon), which she had given on loan to the Austrian Gallery (Österreichische Galerie, formerly called the Moderne Galerie) had been sold to the museum by her stepfather, at an unsuitably low price, ostensibly to pay for repairs to her House Alma Mahler Breitenstein am Semmering 1913-1937 (Werfelweg 6, Villa Mahler). Other property, including paintings by her father, Emil Jakob Schindler, had been bequeathed, through the will and testament of Richard and Maria Eberstaller, to Eberstaller’s heir, his brother Theodor.
  • 17-08-1945 Los Angeles/Santa Barbara: Werfel finishes in Santa Barbara the "Stern der Ungeborenen”. Physical breakdown.
  • 26-08-1945 Los Angeles/Beverly Hills: Franz Werfel dies.
  • 29-08-1945 Los Angeles/Beverly Hills: Funeral in Beverly Hills. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951), Otto Preminger, Otto Klemperer and the Mann-Family participate in mourning ceremonies.

Period 1946-1964: After Franz Werfel (1890-1945)

1946-1949. Four envelopes written by Alma Mahler (1879-1964) in Beverly Hills (House Alma Mahler Beverly Hills 1942-1952 (610 North Bedford Drive)) to Wilhelm (Willy) Carl Emil Legler (1902-1960).

1946. Los Angeles. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) and Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1947. Vienna, Tulln airport (near Vienna). Alma Mahler (1879-1964). Arrival.

1947. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Agnes Ida Gebauer (1895-1977) arriving at Tulln airport, Vienna (1947, Brumowski Air Base).

Fragment (Video, German, duration 00:56) Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Agnes Ida Gebauer (1895-1977) arriving at Tulln airport, Vienna (1947, Brumowski Air Base).

1948. Alma Mahler (1879-1964). After a performance of Mahler Symphony No. 8 at the Hollywood Bowl, 07-1948.

1948. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Eugene Ormandy (1899-1985). After a performance of Mahler Symphony No. 8 at the Hollywood Bowl, 07-1948.

1948. Eugene Ormandy (1899-1985), Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Thomas Mann (1875-1955). After a performance of Mahler Symphony No. 8 at the Hollywood Bowl, 07-1948.

1948. Bruno Walter (1876-1962)Alma Mahler (1879-1964) and Eugene Ormandy (1899-1985). After a performance of Mahler Symphony No. 8 at the Hollywood Bowl, 07-1948.

1950. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) with a portrait of Gustav Mahler.

1954. Los Angeles, Beverly Hills. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) with a score of Gustav Mahler.

1960. New York, Carnegie Hall. Alma Mahler (1879-1964) listening to a performance of Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 2 by conductor Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990).

1962. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1962. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1962. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1962. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1964. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1964. Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1964. Vienna, Grinzing cemetery. Grave Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

1964. Vienna, Grinzing cemetery. Grave Alma Mahler (1879-1964).

  • 00-00-1946 Los Angeles: Alma Mahler-Werfel becomes an American citizen.
  • 00-08-1947 Journey to Europe.
  • 00-00-1947 London: Visits to daughter Anna Justine Mahler (Gucki) (1904-1988) and granddaughter Marina Fistoulari Mahler (1943) in London.
  • 00-00-1947 Vienna: Stay in Vienna. Efforts to secure her possessions.
  • 00-00-1947 Los Angeles: Return to the USA.
  • 00-00-1948 Los Angeles/Beverly Hills: Daughter Anna Justine Mahler (Gucki) (1904-1988) comes to visit Alma in Beverly Hills.
  • 00-00-1949 Visit of Erich Maria Remarque and Benjamin Britten.
  • 00-07-1949 Los Angeles: Daughter Anna Justine Mahler (Gucki) (1902-1907) pays a visit to California again.
  • 00-00-1950 Los Angeles/Beverly Glen: Daughter Anna Justine Mahler (Gucki) (1904-1988) and granddaughter Marina Fistoulari Mahler (1943) move to Beverly Glen.
  • 00-04-1950 Alma has Gustav Mahler's score of his unfinished 10th symphony published in print.
  • 00-00-1952 New York/Manhattan: Alma Mahler-Werfel moves to New York/Manhattan.
  • 00-11-1952 Paris: Trip to Paris.
  • 00-01-1953 Rome: Stay in Rome.
  • 00-00-1953 During return-trip to the USA encounter with writer Thornton Wilder.
  • 00-10-1954 Rome: Travels to Rome.
  • 00-00-1959 Benjamin Britten dedicates the "Nocturne for tenor and small orchestra” to Alma
  • 00-00-1960 Alma Mahler-Werfel's autobiography "And the Bridge is Love” is published.
  • 00-00-1962 Alma attends rehearsals of Gustav Mahler's 8th symphony under the direction of Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990).
  • 31-08-1964 Celebration of Alma’s 85th birthday.
  • 11-12-1964 New York: Alma Mahler (1879-1964) dies.

Alma Mahler (1879-1964) signature.

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